Workshops peer-reviewed

DUBOS Anne, BEVILACQUA Frederick, LARRALDE Joseph, CHEVRIER Joël & JEGO Jean-François, Designing Gestures for Interactive Systems : Towards Multicultural Perspectives, In Proceedings of the 16th IFIP TC.13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (INTERACT 2017), Mumbai, India, Springer, 20 septembre 2017.

This practice-based workshop aims at exploring various methodologies and tools to design gestures that could be used in interactive systems. We argue that gesture design, which can be seen as being a smaller part of the interaction design process, is generally overlooked. Our goals are to develop various methods, some being inspired by performing arts practices, and to discuss the multicultural aspects of gesture design.

Conferences peer-reviewed


[TO APPEAR] PLESSIET Cédric, JEGO Jean-François. MITMI Man-In-The-Middle Interaction: The human back in the loop, in VRIC Virtual Reality International Conference (VRIC 2019), Laval, France, 20-22 mars 2019,  ACM, New York, USA, 2019.

“The medium is the message” from McLuhan [13] showed and still shows how the medium influences how the message is perceived. This article proposes a new model for computer-human interaction named MITMI for (hu)man-in-the-middle Interaction in the context of digital art. This approach questions the concept of mediated interaction by placing the human as the driver and as the “translator” of the interaction process from a theoretical point of view. Indeed, mediated interaction is based on the fact that two humans are able to interact through a technological device [5]. We develop the idea of putting human back as an intermediary between the user/spectator and the technology. Our model thus introduces a way of conceptualizing interactive digital artworks, where the artist considered as an operator and creator can also take a central position and is no longer the only producer of the work taking thus entirely part of the artwork. We first explore the need to put the human back in the loop, then we will describe how the principles of mediated interaction help in defining the MITMI model. We will stress this model through several installations and interactive artworks based on the idea of shifting the artist position from the creator, to the mediator between the real world and the virtual world. Beyond the artistic approach, this model proposes to redefine and to explore new modes of co-creation or mediation, where digital media supports human-to-human interaction.


TRAMUS Marie-Hélène, CHEN Chu-Yin, GUEZ Judith, JEGO Jean-François, BATRAS Dimitrios, BOUTET Dominique, BLONDEL Marion, CATTEAU Fanny et VINCENT Coralie, Interaction gestuelle improvisée avec un acteur virtuel dans un théâtre d’ombres bidimensionnelles ou au sein d’un univers virtuel en relief : l’illusion d’un dialogue ?, in Stéréoscopie et Illusion, 2018, p 281-299.

Le projet collaboratif CIGALE (Capture et Interaction avec des Gestes Artistiques, Langagiers et Expressifs), soutenu, par le Labex ARTS-H2H, a développé un dispositif mettant en œuvre une interaction gestuelle entre un acteur humain et un acteur virtuel (AV).  Les recherches se sont déployées selon cinq directions : la capture du mouvement, l’analyse gestuelle, la génération de mouvements virtuels, l’improvisation et sa modélisation, l’interaction gestuelle et son analyse. Nous nous focaliserons dans cet article sur les deux derniers axes, ceux de l’improvisation et de l’interaction gestuelle avec un AV en nous intéressant plus particulièrement à l’installation InterACTE, une des créations en réalité virtuelle développées dans le cadre de ce projet.


Dimitrios Batras, Judith Guez, and Jean-François Jégo. 2016. InterACTE: Improvising with a Virtual Actor. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Movement and Computing (MOCO ’16). ACM, New York, NY, USA, , Article 52 , 2 pages. DOI:

This paper describes an interactive installation that invites participants to improvise with an autonomous virtual actor. Based on real-time analysis of the participant’s gestures, the virtual actor is capable of either propose expressive and linguistic gestures (selected from a set of four Motion Capture Databases), either imitate the participant, or either generate its own gestures using a Genetic Algorithm. A software agent is used to trigger the previously mentioned behaviors based on the analysis results and on a set of predefined rules. The installation is presented in two acts: i. In the first act, the participant interacts with the projected shadow of the virtual actor; ii. In the second act, the participant is being immersed in a 3D world using a virtual reality HMD—the virtual actor is being presented to her/him in the form of an avatar made of particles.

Dimitrios Batras, Jean-François Jégo, and Chu-Yin Chen. 2016. Deaf Poetry: saying everything without speaking. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Movement and Computing (MOCO ’16). ACM, New York, NY, USA, , Article 51 , 2 pages. DOI:

Here, hands don’t beat the drum. Instead the drum speaks with its hands, projected onto its skin. They interact and create poems in sign language, especially for the deaf/hearing impaired, because the drum has acquired the expressive and prosodic gestures of deaf poets. This installation is based on a Virtual Reality Agent-based platform to explore an interactive gestural dialogue between real and virtual actors.

Anne Dubos and Jean-François Jégo. 2016. Rock Art Rocks Me. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Movement and Computing (MOCO ’16). ACM, New York, NY, USA, , Article 49 , 2 pages. DOI:

We are looking for something primitive: a memory from before our birth. Something obvious, we all carry and that evolves within us: the first gestures of the first men. Between art, science and technology, our research tends to a virtual scene of rock art in action. Assuming that the cave paintings are the traces of oral performance or dance rites, they have been used as transmission and communication media for the knowledge of surrounding and environments of the early men (hunting, myth, history, art or religious content, shamanism). Through the scope of these fragmentary traces of history, we are seeking to reconstruct various performative scenarios echoing the paintings of the Chauvet’s cave.

BATRAS Dimitrios, GUEZ Judith, JEGO Jean-François et TRAMUS Marie-Hélène, A virtual reality agent-based platform for improvisation between real and virtual actors using gestures, in ACM VRIC Virtual Reality International Conference (VRIC 2016), Laval, France, 23-25 mars 2016, Article No. 34, ACM, New York, USA, 2016.

This paper describes the process of designing a Virtual Reality Agent-based platform to explore an interactive gestural dialogue between real and virtual actors and propose an analysis of the results. It is part of an interdisciplinary project involving researchers in the fields of linguistics, digital arts and computer science, as well as actors and professors. Several experiments of improvisation conducted with actors through computer-mediated interactions help in characterizing specific dynamics of gestures, recurrent behaviors and gestural patterns. We extract specific descriptors of movement and behaviors that will drive the improvisation. The virtual actor is able to improvise and generate its gestures using a finite state machine that triggers three main behaviors according to the actor’s body posture and arm movements: the virtual actor can mime in real-time the real actor, it can propose expressive or linguistic gestures from four MoCap databases, or it can generate a new gesture using a genetic algorithm. A first installation experienced by the participants during at an international art festival, shows they are able to improvise fluently with the virtual actor in a rich and expressive dialogue.


JEGO Jean-François, CHEN Chu-Yin, TRAMUS Marie-Hélène, GUEZ Judith, BOUTET D., BLONDEL M., BATRAS D., CATTEAU F., CHABALIER C., DELACROIX S., HSIEH C.-W., RENNA I., GUYOT P., LUBEK J., On the CIGALE project, in Scription — ex-scription, actes colloque international Le sujet Digital, Labex-Arts-H2H, Université Paris 8, Paris, 18-21 novembre 2015

CIGALE, Capture et Interaction avec des Gestes Artistiques, Langagiers et Expressifs, développe un dispositif artistique et scientifique mettant en œuvre une interaction gestuelle entre un humain et une entité virtuelle. Quatre bases de données gestuelles d’une grande diversité sémiotique ont été enregistrées par capture de mouvement. La capture du mouvement implique son ‘décollement’ du support corporel et de l’espace qui participent au sens des gestes. Un générateur paramétrable appliqué aux gestes (gestes virtuels par algorithme génétique) complète les bases de données de gestes. Des expérimentations d’interactions ont permis de modéliser des comportements en usage dans un dialogue gestuel et de les implémenter dans le moteur de comportement de l’entité virtuelle. Ces va-et-vient dialogiques entre corps réel, extraction, inscription et ex-cription du sens dans l’interaction avec une entité virtuelle, interrogent l’ontologie même d’un avatar.


Jégo J.F., Paljic A., and Fuchs P., User-Defined Gestural Interaction: a Study on Gesture Memorization. IEEE 3DUI Symposium on 3D User Interfaces, p. 7-10, Orlando, Fl, USA, mars 2013

In this paper we study the memorization of user created gestures for 3DUI. Wide public applications mostly use standardized gestures for interactions with simple contents. This work is motivated by two application cases for which a standardized approach is not possible and thus user specific or dedicated interfaces are needed. The first one is applications for people with limited sensory-motor abilities for whom generic interaction methods may not be adapted. The second one is creative arts applications, for which gesture freedom is part of the creative process. In this work, users are asked to create gestures for a set of tasks, in a specific phase, prior to using the system. We propose a user study to explore the question of gesture memorization. Gestures are recorded and recognized with a Hidden Markov Model. Results show that it seems difficult to recall more than two abstract gestures. Affordances strongly improve memorization whereas the use of colocalization has no significant effect.



JEGO Jean-François, NERTOMB Rachel, Rubikhome project : Experiencing a modular interactive architecture. Revue des Arts et Technologies de l’image n°4, p. 61-64, janvier 2009

RubikHome propose de jouer sur la proprioception et la conscience de son propre corps pour interagir par proximité aux objets d’un appartement virtuel. Le principe est de composer une symphonie visuelle dans un environnement virtuel reprenant les codes du quotidien. La simple proximité du corps permet de faire nuancer la configuration des objets et des pièces d’un appartement virtuel. Cette expérience questionne aussi la notion de présence en environnement virtuel, l’utilisateur impliqué en virtuel ayant la sensation de vivre une expérience dans l’appartement virtuel plutôt que dans la pièce réelle.



Jégo J.F., Guez J., Redonner densité à l’acteur virtuel : identité, présence, interaction, Colloque international L’acteur face aux écrans : corps en scène [Prise 2], Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada et Sorbonne Nouvelle Paris 3, Paris, 3-5 juin 2015

Un corps numérisé, mis en scène et restitué en temps réel par des dispositifs de réalité virtuelle peut être communément assimilé à une perte de densité, de corporéité, ou d’identité par rapport au jeu de l’acteur réel. La chair de synthèse, le plus souvent révélée par l’image, lui attribue un caractère immatériel qui ne permet pas de contact ou ressenti physique, haptique ou charnel. L’enjeu actuel reste de redonner aux corps synthétiques épaisseur et caractère. À travers l’étude de deux mises en scène, qui croisent le jeu d’acteurs réel et de synthèse, nous voyons émerger trois critères essentiels pour redonner une densité au numérique : identité, présence, interaction. De ces trois points, nous notons que l’association du jeu de l’acteur réel avec celui de l’être virtuel ainsi caractérisé permet l’émergence de situations singulières et empathiques construites le temps du spectacle.


Jégo J.F., Circulation et équilibre des rôles entre mécanismes de commandes et comportement autonome, Séminaire « créateurs de comportements », Living Art Lab, p. 25, Le Cube, Issy, 05 juillet 2011

La pièce que présente Jean François Jégo est une interprétation par Sophie Lavaud du tableau Rouge, Jaune, Bleu de Wassily Kandinsky datant de 1925. L’objectif de l’auteur est de rendre le tableau dynamique, et ce par la modélisation en 3D des éléments qui le composent. Le spectateur interagit avec ces éléments et les déplace dans le tableau afin de créer sa propre composition. L’œuvre s’expérimente selon trois niveaux proxémiques, et les éléments du tableau disposent de comportements autonomes. Ils sont soumis à des forces d’élasticité, d’équilibre ou de ressort entre eux ainsi que d’une inertie individuelle. L’utilisateur ne peut prévoir quel sera le point d’arrivée de l’élément qu’il va déplacer. Les mécanismes de commandes sont eux, interactifs, et demandent un certain apprentissage de l’œuvre. Les échanges portent sur la circulation et l’équilibre des rôles entre les mécanismes de commandes interactifs et les comportements autonomes.



Jean-François Jégo, User-Defined Gestural Interaction for Virtual Reality, PhD Thesis, Mines parisTech, p 166, Paris, 2013

In this thesis, we propose and evaluate new gestural interfaces for 3DUI. This work is motivated by two application cases: the first one is dedicated to people with limited sensory-motor abilities for whom generic interaction methods may not be adapted. The second one is artistic digital performances, for which gesture freedom is part of the creative process. For those cases, a standardized approach is not possible and thus user-specific or dedicated interfaces are needed. We propose a user-defined gestural interaction that allows the user to make the system learn the gestures that he has created, in a specific phase, prior to using the system. Then, the user reuses his created gestures to interact in the virtual environment. This approach raises research questions about memorization of gestures, effects of fatigue and effects of visual feedbacks. To answer those questions, we study the memorization of user created gestures regarding the role of affordances and colocalization on gesture recall. Then, we study the role of different visual feedbacks on gesture repetitions for a set of manipulation tasks. We also compare full-collocated gestures to loose gestures with lower amplitude. Also, the approach has been designed to be affordable using low-cost devices. We explore solutions to deal with the lower data quality of such devices. The results of the user-studies are based on the analysis of six thousand gestures performed by forty subjects.


Jean-François Jégo, Interactive mime performance: reciprocities with virtual silhouettes, Master Thesis, Université Paris 8, p 61, Paris, 2010

This thesis deals with the setup of a technical device dedicated to an interactive set design for performing arts. Featuring Dimitri Rekatchevski, mime artist, a six scenes pantomime (mime theatrical performance) has been created. The actor is tracked by a motion capture system in real time, this adds a new dimension for the performance: the interactivity. The actors and the elements are visible from the public behind a folding screen which receives the video projection of the black shape of the actor and the virtual accessories. We will discuss about the relationships and conversation’s interfaces between real and virtual elements, with an approach focused on the actor.